A small percentage of heart attacks occur after heavy physical work.
In general, the following people should avoid intense exercise or start it only with careful monitoring:
- People who have certain medical conditions: These conditions include uncontrolled diabetes, uncontrolled seizures, uncontrolled high blood pressure, a heart attack within the previous 6 months, heart failure, unstable angina, significant aortic valve disease, or aortic aneurysm.
- People with moderate-to-severe hypertension: Moderate or severe high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure over 160 mm Hg or diastolic (bottom number) pressure over 100 mm Hg) should be brought to lower levels before a person starts a vigorous exercise program.
- Sedentary people should be cautious. One major study found that sedentary people who throw themselves into a grueling workout significantly increase their risk of heart attack.
- Episodes of exercise-related sudden death in young people are rare but of great concern. Some are preceded by fainting, which is due to a sudden and severe drop in blood pressure. It should be noted that fainting is relatively common in athletes, and is dangerous only in people with existing heart conditions. Young people with genetic or congenital (present at birth) heart disorders should avoid intensive competitive sports.
- Anabolic steroids or products containing ephedra have been associated with cases of stroke, heart attack, and even death.
The risk for heart attack from exercise should be kept in perspective, however. Some form of exercise, carefully personalized, has benefits for most of the individuals mentioned above. In many cases, particularly when the only risk factors are a sedentary lifestyle and older age, exercise can often be increased over time until it is intense.
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